1.1 These regulations shall be read in conjunction with the General Regulations and the Faculty Regulations.

1.2 The Bachelor of Science Surveying and Geomatics Degree at the Midlands State University prepares the student for entry into a working discipline as a Geographic Information Systems Specialist, Land Surveyor or Mapping Specialist, with the option to continue for advanced degrees. Within the undergraduate degree, the student takes general education, basic mathematics and sciences and a core group of technical courses in Geospatial sciences (Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Mapping, Geodesy, Global Positioning Systems, Database technology and Surveying) followed by application course work in natural sciences, planning, land administration, or professional surveying and mapping.

1.3 The traditional work nature of a land surveyor is being revolutionized by changes in computing, communications and space technology. The task is no longer just the establishment of an object’s position but extends to the management and use of land information in such fields as planning and construction.


2.1 This Programme aims to meet the substantial need in Zimbabwe for professionals who can act competently and innovatively as: Land Surveyors, Engineering Surveyors, Cartographic Managers, 992 Photogrammetrists, Remote Sensing Specialists or Geographic Information Systems Managers.

The Programme provides students with the necessary theoretical foundation and practical skills, as well as an understanding of both state-of-the-art and experimental techniques, to help them meet the challenges of a career in a rapidly advancing world.

2.2 After completion of the degree programme, the student should have gained skills to

2.2.1 Develop and utilize Geographic information systems for analysis of earth resources data.

2.2.2 Integrate digital data from diverse sources, including Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry and Land Surveying, as well as demographic and statistical information.

2.2.3 Utilize a range of computer hardware and software systems for analysis and modeling of complex spatial data.

2.2.4 Plan and participate in major surveying, land management, map production and environmental management projects involving multidisciplinary teams of professionals.

2.2.5 Design and build Geographic databases and spatial analysis software as part of the process of commercial systems implementation.

2.2.6 Accurately measure and collect information concerning the earth’s surface and its features, using satellite and terrestrial methods. 993

2.2.7 Locate precisely engineering structures (e.g. buildings, roads, dams, mines etc.) using modern survey and satellite positioning techniques.

2.2.8 Plan and design the subdivision of land for industrial and housing development.

2.2.9 Produce standard map products from diverse data, including remote sensing, Photogrammetry and land surveying.

2.2.10 Utilize a range of computer aided drafting (CAD) systems for production of complex map and graphic displays.


On completion of this Programme, graduates can be employed in any one of the following fields: Geodesy, Cadastral surveying, Topographic mapping, Engineering surveying, Automated Cartography, Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Global Positioning Systems, Land reform and land development, Land and Geographic Information Systems, Utility management, Environmental protection, Metrology, Education, Administration, mainstream Information Technology and private practice. This list is by no means exhaustive because Geomatics spans over many application areas.


4.1 Normal Entry

Prospective students must comply with General Regulations for Undergraduate Degrees at the Midlands State University. Entry requirements for acceptance are Advanced Level passes in Mathematics and Physics and any other Science subject. 994

4.2 Special Entry

Refer to Section 3.2 of the General Regulations.

4.3 Mature Entry

Refer to Section 3.3 of the General Regulations.


5.1 Assessment of the practicum modules SVG108, SVG208 and SVG308 shall be based on conduct during the field camps and written reports.

5.2 Students shall start working on their dissertation in level 5, semester 1. The original copy of the Final Year Project report and one extra copy will be submitted for assessment at a specified date. Students may be penalized for late submissions. Candidates will be examined orally, on the project, when the Department has accepted the report.


Refer to Section 5 of the Faculty Regulations.


Refer to Section 9 of the General Regulations.


Refer to Section 7 of the Faculty Regulations.


Refer to Section 8 of the Faculty Regulations. 995


Refer to Section 10 of the Faculty Regulations.


For the purposes of classification, weighting of the results of the different levels shall be:

Level 1 5%

Level 2 10%

Level 3 15%

Level 4 30%

Level 5 40%


NB: *Denotes core modules

Level 1 Semester 1

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG101 * Geomatics 4
SVG106 * Cartography I 4
SVG105 * Surveying IA 4
HMT101 * Calculus I 4
HMT102 Linear Mathematics I 4
HCS101 * Introduction to Computers and Computer Applications Computer Applications 4
HCS106 Fundamentals of Computer Architecture 4
HPH103 Waves and Optics 4
CS101 * Communication Skills 4

Level 1 Semester 2

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG104 * Surveying I B 4
SVG211 * Photogrammetry I 4
SVG210 * Geographic Information Systems 4
SVG108 * Practicum 4
HMT103 Probability Theory I 4
HMT104 * Applied statistics 4
HCS102 * Introduction to Programming 4
HPH101 Mechanics 4

Level 2 Semester 1 Pre-requisites Credit

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG205 * Surveying IIA (SVG105, SVG104) 4
SVG206 * Cartography II (SVG106) 4
SVG311 * Photogrammetry II (SVG211) 4
SVG215 * Geographic Information Systems II (SVG210) 4
HMT106 Calculus II 4
HMT206 Numerical methods 4
HCS213 Operating Systems 4
GS201 * Introduction to Gender Studies 4

Level 2 Semester 2

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG204 * Surveying II B (SVG105, SVG104) 4
SVG315 * Geographic Information Systems III (SVG215) 4
SVG208 * Practicum II (SVG108) 4
SVG216 * Surveying Computer Applications (SVG205, HSC102) 4
HMT108 * Regression and Analysis of variance I 4
HCS221 Models of Databases and D/base Design 4

Level 3 Semester 1

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG305 * Surveying III (SVG204, SVG205) 4
SVG301 * Remote Sensing 4
SVG412 * Geographic Information Systems IV (SVG315) 4
SVG320 * Engineering Surveying (SVG204, SVG205) 4
SVG302 * Global Positioning Systems (SVG204, SVG205) 4
SVG212 * Adjustment Computations I (HMT108) 4
HMT201 Ordinary Differential Equations 4

Level 3 Semester 2

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG312 * Adjustment Computations II (SVG212) 998 4
SVG319 * Cadastral Surveying I (SVG305) 4
SVG209 * Geodesy (SVG305) 4
SVG309 Mining Surveying (SVG305) 4
SVG314 * Automated Survey Draughting (SVG305) 4
SVG308 * Practicum III (SVG208, SVG305) 4
SVG303 Electronic Surveying 4
HCS114 Systems Analysis and Design 4
MHT401 PDEs and Fourier Series 4

Level 4 Semester 1 and 2

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG401 * Work Related Learning Report 15
SVG402 * Academic Supervisor’s Report 15
SVG403 * Employer’s Assessment Report 10

Level 5 Semester 1

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG415 * Land Law (SVG319) 4
SVG419 Urban Planning 4
HCS423 The Internet 4
HMT407 Survey Techniques 999 4
SVG420 Land Economics and Management 4
SVG423 Project Planning and Implementatio 4
SVG432 * Business matters for Geomaticians 4
SVG431 * Geographic Information Systems V (SVG412) 4

Level 5 Semester 2

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG422 * GIS Camp (SVG412) 4
GES201 Environmetal Mgt. & Impact Assessment 4
SVG426 Geology 4
BM102 Business Communication 4
SVG425 * Dissertation 8

Elective Modules

Module Code Module Pre-requisites Credits
SVG416 Environmental Studies 4
SVG417 Deformation and Hydrographic Surveying 4
SVG426 Cadastral Surveying II 4
SVG109 Basic Surveying Principles and Applications 4
SVG420 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems 4
SVG209 Advanced Site Surveying 4
SVG202 Astronomy 4
SVG411 Digital Photogrammetry 4 1000 4


SVG101 Geomatics

Overview of Geomatics: Possible fields of employment, (Spatial data capture, data storage, data structuring, quality control, data output and data delivery), Data Capture: (Photogrammetry, Digitizing, Surveying, Administrative data capture, Remote Sensing), Data Structuring: (Data cleaning and editing, building topology, adding attributes), Data Output: (Cartographic compilation, graphic design, rasterizing, film plotting, plate making, printing), Data Delivery: (Data extraction, data processing, quality control, copying to media), Careers in the field of Geomatics, the future of Geomatics. An excursion to an established Surveying and Mapping organization.

SVG105 Surveying IA

Introduction & History of Surveying. Survey measurements: Errors: Gross, Systematic, Random. Distance Measurements: Taping, corrections/reductions, chain surveys. Leveling: dumpy, tilting and automatic levels, field procedures, booking and reduction, applications, grid leveling and contouring: Plane table surveys, Coordinate systems: plane, spherical,

SVG104 Surveying IB

The Theodolite; angular measurements, Traversing: field procedures, reductions, computations, Tacheometry: (i) Theodolite and staff, (ii) tacheometers, (iii) Theodolite and tape, (iv) Theodolite and EDM, (v) Total Station, Plotting tachy details.

SVG106 Cartography I

Introduction; History of cartography; Basic concepts of map projections; grids and graticules; scales; scale change; map compilation; generalization. Map production; freehand drawing; perspective; instruments and materials. Graphics; lettering; line work and dimensions. Symbolization; relief representation and contouring.1001

SVG108 Practicum I

Two weeks of practical survey work covering all the aspects studied in level one. Consolidates the theory of plane surveying with practice and gives experience in organization and team working on a surveying projects.

SVG205 Surveying II A

Instrumentation: (1) Optical theodolite; construction, errors, tests and adjustment, (2) Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM): construction, errors, tests, adjustment and standardization. The Gauss projection; t T correction, meridian convergence and sea-level and projection correction. Linear Coordinate transformations.

SVG204 Surveying II B

Precise traversing: Theodolite and tape, theodolite and EDM, total station, advanced traversing theory. Point positioning: Intersection and Resection; error figures, Precise Leveling, Trigonometrical heighting: reciprocal and simultaneous leveling: curvature and refraction corrections.

SVG206 Cartography II

Map projections; Tissof’s theorem; applications of map projections; map reproduction; film; diazo; dichromated colloids; electrostatic printing; printing; map types and topographic senses; thematic mapping; visual perception and cartographic communications, map revision; color theory; organization and planning; atlases; map accuracy; charts and electronic charts; orthophotos; graphics.

SVG209 Geodesy

Definition, evolution of Geodesy. Geodetic reference surfaces; the geoid, spheroid, ellipsoid. Ellipsoidal Geometry and coordinate systems. Normal sections and curves. Geodesics. Ellipsoidal corrections. Direct and inverse geodetic problems. Geodetic datum. Terrestrial coordinate systems and transformations. Conformal map projections and distortions. Map projections used in Zimbabwe. 1002

SVG211 Photogrammetry I

Introduction, applications, principles of photography, optics of Photogrammetry, aerial cameras, vertical photographs, stereoscopic viewing, stereoscopic parallax, flight planning, photo-interpretation.

SVG212 Adjustment Computations I

The concept of measurement and error. Types of error. Error propagation. Linearisation. Statistical concepts, Analysis of precision and variance, Multivariate distributions, Variance and co-variance propagation. The error ellipse. Weights and cofactors. Non-linear functions of stochastic variables. Application of variance and co-variance propagation. The concept of least squares adjustment. Least squares adjustment of indirect observations. Derivation using matrix notation. Application of least squares adjustment of indirect observations. Combined angle and distance measurement.

SVG214 Urban Planning

History and development of urban form and planning. Principles of urban planning. Urban design in theory and practice. Master plan, design of subdivisions. Urban housing. Planning regulations and enforcement. Transportation planning and municipal services. Urban land value and its effect on planning and investment patterns. Impact of engineering construction on the environment.

SVG210 Geographic Information Systems I

(GIS data models, data capture and data integration)

Introduction, definition of GIS, history of GIS, areas of application, maps and map analysis, GIS as models of reality, spatial objects and their relationships, raster and vector data models, raster and vector GIS capabilities, the raster/vector database debate, GIS data capture techniques: modes of spatial data entry, manual digitizing, heads up digitizing, scanning, converting data from other sources, criteria for choosing mode of data capture, rasterisation and vectorisation, data integration.

SVG215 Geographic Information Systems II

(Spatial relationships and GIS Analysis Functions) 1003
Spatial relationships (one class of objects, object pairs, more than one class of objects). GIS Analysis Functions (Measure, Coordinate transformation, Generate objects, Select a subset of objects, Modify attributes of objects, Dissolve and merge area objects, Generalize or smooth lines, Compute statistics for a set of objects, topological overlay, operations on surfaces, network analysis, Input and output management).

SVG216 Surveying Computer Applications

Programming of surveying and GIS problems using Pascal, Visual Basic, C or C++: The student should be able to write a suite of programs solving the following problems: (i) Angle/distance/area/volume conversions, (ii) Tape and EDM distance reductions, (ii) Joins (single, consecutive and radial), (iii) polars (single, consecutive and radial), (iv) intersection, (v) resection, (vi) linear coordinate transformations, (vii) traversing, (viii) Leveling reductions, (ix) network adjustment, (x) Topological line intersections

The students are expected to master the programming language that they will be using, produce correct flowcharts for the problems, write the source code and be able to successfully run the programs.

SVG202 Astronomy

Spherical trigonometry, solution of spherical triangles, celestial sphere, coordinate systems, transformations, reduction of star positions, special star positions, computations of ephemeredes, keplarian elements, time systems, time dissemination and reception; prediction, observation, and calculation of azimuth, latitudes and longitudes.

SVG208 Practicum II

Two weeks of practical survey work covering all the aspects studied in second year. Consolidates the theory of surveying with practice and gives experience in organisation and team working on a surveying projects.

SVG305 Surveying III

Geodetic leveling. Leveling datum. Triangulated heights. Classical geodetic positioning techniques triangulation, trilateration, triangulateration design, 1004. reconnaissance and establishment of 2D networks, Monumentation and signaling. Calibration and field procedures. Station adjustment. Network densification. Geodetic networks of Zimbabwe. The Arc datum and its transformation. Gauss and UTM coordinates. Overview of 3D networks.

SVG311 Photogrammetry II

Mono-plotters; stereo-plotters (analogue, converted, analytical and digital); low-cost machines, orientation theory, graphicssuperimposition, image correlation, area correlation, correlation along Epipolar lines. Application in DTM; map revision and terrestrial and close range Photogrammetry. Aerial triangulation; strip triangulation; independent model triangulation; Bundle block adjustment.

SVG312 Adjustment Computations II

Additional parameters in surveying. Mixed observations and network adjustment. A photogrammetric problem. Least squares adjustment of observations only. Derivation using matrix notation. Application of least squares adjustment of observations only. General least squares. Applications in plane surveying. Point and interval estimation. Hypothesis testing. Applications in plane surveying. The similarity transformation.Least squares with conditions and constraints. Adjustment with conditions and constraints with added parameters. Numerical and statistical considerations in adjustment. The linearisation concept and iteration. A posteriori statistical analysis. Computational and numerical considerations.

SVG315 Geographic Information Systems III

(Raster and vector data structures and algorithms)

Storage of complex objects, Line Storage Techniques, Raster Storage Techniques, Vector structuring (Spaghetti and Topological Modeling); Raster Structuring (Regular and Irregular tessellations); Vector Algorithms (Intersection of Lines, Area of a polygon, Point-in-Polygon, Centroid Location, Polygon Overlay); Raster Algorithms (Area and Adjacency), integrating data from different sources. 1005

SVG319 Cadastral Surveying

Forms of land tenure. Dominium. Land tenure types in Zimbabwe. Partial rights in land. Acquisition and disposal of land and rights in land. Land registration. The cadastre. Boundary demarcation, delineation and restoration. Case Law. Cadastral surveys. Survey records. Cadastral systems and LIS. Land parcel appellation. Partitioning of exclusive rights of occupation. The Land Survey Regulations and the functions of the Department of the Surveyor-General, Township Layout, standards and field techniques. Relocation of beacons.

SVG320 Engineering Surveying

Route location surveys, profiles (longitudinal and cross-sections), curve ranging and setting out (circular, transition and vertical), calculation of areas and volumes of regular and irregular shapes or figures (the planimeter, trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule, cross sections, spot-heights, contours), mass haul diagrams and applications, construction surveying (alignment, grade, setting out of buildings, tunnels, bridges, culverts, dams, railroads, canals, underground surveys), Use of Lasers in Civil Engineering, Metrology.

SVG309 Mine Surveying

Spatial measurements of high precision for experiment and industrial setting out and quality assurance. Underground surveying. Peg ledgers and information systems; Shaft plumbing; use of lasers; Gyro-Theodolite. Tunneling surveys, Rock deformation surveys, Sampling. Geology. Ventilation. Mine Management. Subsidence. Surveying of open cast pits.

SVG301 Remote Sensing

Basic Physics of Remote Sensing; Kepler’s Laws and Orbital Parameters, Optical Scanning Systems; CCD Cameras; Video Scanning Systems; Satellite Systems; Landsat Series; SPOT Series; MOMS Series; NOAA; Radar Systems; Digital Imaging Processing Basics; Color and Grey Scale Images, Sensor Deficiencies and Calibration, Signal processing, Preprocessing Techniques, Image Enhancement; Filtering Techniques, Noise, Smoothing, Edge Detection, Feature Detection and Extraction; 1006 Supervised Classification; unsupervised Classification, Remote Sensing Packages; ERDAS, PCI. Applications: Principles of Image Interpretation, Visual Analysis, Optical Properties of Vegetation Canopies, Vegetation Characteristics using NDVI, Satellite Remote Sensing in Tropical Forests, Agricultural Statistics by Remote Sensing, Application in Soil Sciences, Cartographic Applications, Defense Applications, Water Resource Management, Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS.

SVG302 Global Positioning Systems

Motion of a satellite, orbit geometry and perturbations; time measuring systems; global geodesy model; reduction and adjustment of satellite observation data; differential equations of orbit relaxation; network optimization; data transformation. GPS Overview: Design of planning, data collection, data processing and network adjustment applications; kinematics and real-time applications.

SVG308 Practicum III

Assessment will be made on the basis of contact during the survey camp and on written reports, plans and computations submitted. The survey camp will be undertaken in two weeks.

SVG422 GIS Camp

Assessment will be made on the basis of contact during the camp and on written reports and plans submitted. The survey camp will be undertaken in two weeks.

SVG411 Digital Photogrammetry

Digital mono-plotting; Digital stereo-plotters; Digital orthophotos; Photogrammetry and GIS; Digital Terrain Modeling: data sources, Interpolation, Thiessen polygons, Delaunay triangulation, Radial sweep method, Grid based interpolation, Triangular Irregular Network, DTM contouring, Surface visualization, Intensity surfaces, Perspective views, Application to DTMs. Digital Photogrammetric Workstations (DPW). 1007

SVG406 Digital Cartography

Data acquisition, (Digitizers, Encoders; Scanners), Data storage, data output (Plotters, printers, VDUs), data structuring and integration, Proprietary Digital Mapping packages, Applications.

SVG412 Geographic Information Systems IV

(GIS Database Design and Implementation)

Awareness, Situation Analysis, User needs requirements, System planning, database design, benchmarking, pilot project, database creation, system evaluation, database maintenance, implementation strategies for large organizations and national agencies, implementation issues (standards, legal issues, national GIS policy).

Prototype database to be developed.

SVG420 Land Economics and Management

Basic concepts: price, production and cost theories; supply and demand, money and banking, value, profit, finance, budgets. Land as a resource. Land value, valuation theories and procedures, taxation mechanisms. Use and management of land; planning, organization, control, land use patterns. Influence of economic, social and institutional factors on character, intensity and change of land use and development. Ownership. Legal and social theories of property; proprietary land use analysis, location theory. Land reform. Land policies.

SVG415 Land Law

Concepts of Law. Roman Dutch Law. Property law. Land Tenure systems, Land parcel boundaries. Land ownership, possession, alienation and title. Acquisition, transfer and disposition of land and rights in land. Servitudes, usufruct, usus, habitation, fideiscommissum, lease, tenancy, mortgage and lien. Conveyancing. Land disputes. Encroachment. Acts pertaining to land, land development and conservation in Zimbabwe. The Land Survey Act. The Land Surveyors Act. Introduction to international law on ownership. International boundaries. 1008

SVG416 Environmental Studies

Processes of natural systems: flows and cycles, food chains and networks, population dynamics, diversity and stability, etc. Effects and implications of man’s intervention in natural systems: accumulation of waste products, air and water pollution, eutrophication, population explosions and invasive plant problems, etc. Resource usage: materialism, culture and technology, renewable and non-renewable resources (including human resources), sustainable yields, etc. Management of natural systems: Holistic Resource Management, multiple usage of forest areas, nature reserves, watersheds and mountain catchments, game ranching, etc. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA): processes, methods and techniques, case studies, etc.

SVG314 Automated Survey Draughting

This module will introduce students to automated survey Draughting; each student is expected to produce a survey diagram, a layout plan, a general plan, a working plan and a topographic map. The software to be used for the above tasks will depend on what will be available in the department.

SVG417 Deformation and Hydrographic Surveying

Offshore and onshore surveys to determine the underground profile using different soundings, control surveys, measurement of river flow, discharge calculations, cross sectional sedimentation, control for deformation surveys, monitoring of structures, sea-level variations, land and satellite based navigation, ocean mapping and charting,

SVG423 Project Planning and Implementation

Introduction to project planning and implementation: defining a project, the project cycle, policies and programmes; Financial and economic analysis: discounting, project feasibility, economic analysis, sensitivity analysis, cost/benefit analysis; Operational planning: budgeting, network planning and barcharts, procurement of inputs.

SVG109 Basic Surveying Principles and Applications

Introduction (Definition, Branches of Surveying), Distance measurements, Levelling, The Theodolite, Tacheometry, Detail Surveying, Areas, Volumes and Automated Draughting.1009

SVG209 Advanced Site Surveying

Principles of aerial photography, Route location surveys and setting out, Setting out of engineering constructions, Mine and tunnel surveys, Deformation surveys, Survey camp (students undergo a one week survey camp), Project (to be designed to suit profession of student), Hydrological surveys.

SVG426 Geology

Introduction to Geology, Geological History, Branches of Geology, Rocks and Minerals, Identification of minerals, Classification of Minerals, Physical and chemical properties of Minerals, Identification of rocks, Classification of rocks, Petrology, Geological Structures, Geological Maps, Stratigraphy, The Geology of Zimbabwe, Stratigraphy of Zimbabwe, Economic and Mining Geology of Zimbabwe, Mines and Mineral Act, Geomatics and Geology.

SVG431 Geographic Information Systems V

Guided Study Topic (GIS Applications area): Topographic Mapping, Environment, Forestry; Biology; Geology; Mining; Utilities, AM/FM Systems, LIS; GIS in Developing Countries. Other relevant application areas can be discussed here. Student submits a detailed report on the application of GIS to an area of interest.

SVG303 Electronic Surveying

Use of survey measurement instruments, Science behind the systems of measurement, Adjustment of instruments in different measurement environments, Adjustment of measurements to required values in different environments, the logic and calibration of instruments.

BM102 Business Communication

A study of written and oral communication in technical and scientific environments; emphasizes audience, writing processes, genres of scientific and technical discourse, visual communication, collaboration, professional responsibility, clear and correct expression, oral report(s).

HCSC221 Models of Database and Database Design

Refer to the Department of Computer Science 1010

MT206 Numerical Methods

Refer to the Department of Computer Science

HCSC423 The Internet

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HCS213 Operating Systems

Refer to the Department of Computer Science

HCS114 System Analysis and Design

Refer to the Department of Computer Science

GS201 Gender studies

Refer to the Department of Gender Studies

CS101 Communication skills

Refer to the Department of Communication Skills

HCS101 Introduction to Computers and Computer Applications

Refer to the Department of Computer Science

HMT102 Linear Mathematics

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HMT103 Probability Theory 1

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HMT104 Applied Statistics

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HMT106 Calculus II

Refer to the Department of Mathematics 1011

HMT101 Calculus 1

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HMT407 Survey Techniques

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HMT108 Regression and Analysis of Variance

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HCS112 Introduction to Programming

Refer to the Department of Computer Science

HMT201 Ordinary Differential equations

Refer to the Department of Mathematics

HMT401 PDEs and Fourier Analysis

Refer to the Department of Mathematics