BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PEACE STUDIES HONOURS DEGREE (HPS)

Overview

1. INTRODUCTION

1.2 These regulations should be read in conjunction with  Faculty Regulations and the General Regulations

1.2 The Department of Politics and Public Management seeks to develop students who are relevant to the career demands and challenges in issues of conflict, peace and reconciliation.

1.3 Emphasis will be on illumination of issues surrounding peace, conflict, conflict resolution, conflict transformation, reconciliation and unity.

The BSc Honours Degree in Peace Studies shall be a four year Honours Degree Programme.Â

2. JUSTIFICATION

    • The degree seeks to fill the existing gaps in the training and development of peace builders and conflict managers.
    • Specifically, this is done through development of critical thinking and independent judgement around issues of peace and reconciliation.
    • The programme provides a platform for research on issues of peace, conflict and reconciliation.
    • The programme will not only be of importance to Zimbabwe as a nation but to societies beyond where conflict has negatively impacted on the society.

3.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

    • The broad aims of the programme are to:
      • Fill the existing gaps in the training and development of career peace builders and conflict managers, through development of critical thinking and independent judgement around issues of peace, conflict, and reconciliation.
      • Allow students to gain a critical understanding of problems, challenges and dilemmas in peace, conflict and reconciliation.
      • Provide a platform for research in peace economics, conflict and reconciliation.
    • The specific objectives of the programme are to:
      • To increase knowledge and awareness of basic issues of war, peace, justice, reconciliation and nonviolence
      • To articulate the need and necessity of peace and harmony in all contexts
      • To identify the root causes for violence and its manifestations, and designing ways of dealing with conflict situations, pre, during and post period.
      • To promote the culture of peace in personal and social settings
      • To teach and impart skills to students  in the design of Conflict resolution and mediation mechanisms
      • To produce future leaders with knowledge on peace based leadership.
      • To develop skills needed for active involvement in the field of peace and conflicts.

4.0 CAREER PROSPECTS

4.1 Graduates have career opportunities in both the public and private sector. Among key institutions which can absorb graduates from the programme are:

  • Central Government Ministries
  • Local Authorities (Rural and Urban)
  • Civil Society Organisations
  • Non-Governmental Organisations
  • International Organisations
  • Consultancy Firms
  • Political Parties
  • Academia

Entry Requirements

5.0 ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

5.1 Normal Entry

For entry into the BSc Honours Degree in Peace studies candidates must satisfy the normal entry requirements specified in the Faculty Regulations and the General Regulations. In doing so, they must satisfy the following requirements;

  • Must have obtained at least five ‘O’-Level subjects including English Language.
  • Must have obtained a pass in any two of the following ‘A’ Level subjects:
  • History
  • Economics
  • SociologyÂ
  • Divinity
  • Geography
  • English Literature
  • Shona/Ndebele
5.2 Special Entry Requirements

5.2.1 Holders of relevant diplomas or other relevant qualifications shall be eligible for admission at the discretion of the Departmental Board.

5.3 Mature Entry

5.3.1 Refer to Section 3.3 of the General Regulations.

5.4 Visiting School

5.4.1 The aim of the Visiting School Programme is to provide academic support to those practitioners in the field of Peace studies to upgrade their skills in the area. Ordinarily, these individuals hold qualifications lower than the BSc Peace studies.
5.4.2 The degree programme will be completed in three years with academic levels 2 and 3 running concurrently.

6.0 GENERAL PROVISIONS

6.1 Each module contains material equivalent to 36 hours contact time. Modules are worth four (4) credits each except the dissertation which is worth eight (8) credits.
6.2 To successfully complete the programme a student must at least pass all the modules.
6.3 The number of modules taken by any student from outside the department may be restricted and optional modules are offered subject to availability of staff in the department.
6.4 Work Related learning student placement shall be approved by the Department.

Assessment

7.0 ASSESSMENT 

7.1 Examinations, which shall normally be written at the end of each semester, shall comprise three hour papers.
7.2 The method of assessment includes continuous assessment i.e. seminar presentations and write-ups, assignments and tests. Overall assessment shall be computed as follows:

  • Continuous assessment 40%
  • Examination 60%

7.3 A student is normally required to attain 100% attendance of lectures and tutorials.
7.4 Assessment of Work related Learning; Refer to section 10 of the General regulations.

8.0 FAILURE TO SATISFY EXAMINERS
Refer to Section 9 of the General Regulations.

9.0 WORK RELATED LEARNING GENERAL GUIDELINES
Refer to Section 10 of the General Regulations.

10.0 PROVISIONS FOR PROGRESSION
Refer to Section 6 of the Faculty Regulations.

11.0 GRADING AND DEGREE CLASSIFICATION
Refer to Section 10 of the Faculty Regulations.

12.0 DEGREE WEIGHTING
Refer to Section 11 of the Faculty Regulations.

13.0 HONORARY DEGREES
13.1 Honorary degrees will be awarded to individuals who have distinguished themselves in Peace issues.
13.2 Awarding of honorary degree. Refer to Section 17 of the General regulations

Programme Structure

14:0 PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

The degree shall consist of the following modules (all modules are compulsory):

LEVEL 1.1 CREDITS
HPS 101Introduction to Peace and Conflict4
HPS 102Introduction to Conflict Analysis4
HPS 103Peace and Economics 14
HPS 104Basic Research Methods4
HCS 115Introduction to Information Technology4
CS 101Communication Skills4
LEVEL 1.2
HPS 106Principles of Peace Based Leadership and Governance4
HPS 107Peace and Democracy4
HPS 108Principles of Non-violence4
HPS 109Peace and Reconciliation4
HPS 110Conflict and Human Displacement4
LEVEL 2.1
HPS 201Aspects in Peace and Conflict in Africa4
HPS 202Peace Education4
HPS 203Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation 14
HPS 204Peace Economics 114
GS 201Introduction to Gender Studies4
EMT 205Entrepreneurship4
LEVEL 2.2
HPS 206Advanced Research Methods in Peace and Conflict4
HPS 207Religion, Peace and Conflict4
HPS 208Civil Society and Peace Building4
HPS 209Economics of War and Peace4
HPS 210Gender and Conflict4
HPS 211Negotiations and Mediation4
LEVEL 3
HPS 301Work Related Learning Report15
HPS 302Academic Supervisor’s Report15
HPS 303Employer’s Assessment Report10
LEVEL 4.1
HPS 401Peacekeeping in Africa4
HPS 402Law of Peace and Conflict4
HPS 403International Institutions and Conflict Resolution4
HPS 404Media and Conflict4
HPS 405Community Politics4
LEVEL 4.2
HPS 407Comparative Peace Processes4
HPS 408Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation 24
HPS  409Diplomacy4
HPS 410Dissertation8

 

15: MODULE SYNOPSES

HPS 101 Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies
Since time immemorial, violent conflict has been a major feature of many societies, and this has given rise to a plethora of initiatives and movements dedicated to achieving lasting world peace. This module introduces students to the key issues and debates in peace, and conflict studies. The module introduces students to the concepts, theories and issues in peace and conflict. It considers the history of peace and conflict studies as a new sub-discipline, and highlights global developments that continue to make it dynamic and relevant.

HPS 102 Introduction to Conflict Analysis
Conflict Analysis is defined as the study of the profile, causes, actors and dynamics of conflict. It can be applied at different levels-interpersonal, small group, inter-group, interstate, and transnational levels. Efforts to resolve conflicts must be presaged by holistic analysis of conflict drivers, dynamics, and context. Thus, the module explores issues in conflict resolution, conflict management and conflict transformation. It espouses on the actors involved, the context of conflict resolution, the role of third parties, and peace-building and reconciliation.   It addresses the question of peace accords and peace processes and their bearing on sustainable peace.

HPS 103 Peace and Economics 1
It has been envisaged that the economic situation of any society is linked to the stability and peacefulness nature of the society.Peace economics studies the design of political, economic, and cultural institutions and their policies and actions that prevent, mitigate, or resolve violent conflict within and between societies. It includes both positive economics – the description and explanation of economic phenomena or “what is”-and normative economics – the expression of value judgments about economic fairness and public policy, or “what should be”. The module therefore examines the linkage between the economy and peace. Of essence is how elementary economics may be employed to think about economic aspects of violence, war, and peace.

HPS 104 Basic Research Methods
Research is vital in generating reliable and valid knowledge. This module examines various research techniques for gathering data.  It also highlights their respective strengths and weaknesses. The fundamentals to be introduced are from both qualitative and quantitative approaches in research.

HPS 106 Principles of Peace Based Leadership and Governance
Poor leadership and governance have been cited as the major factors contributing to the degeneration of politics into warfare.  Principled and skilled leadership is core to the politics of peace. This module introduces students to 21st-century models of leadership, with an emphasis on collaborative leadership, and analysis of ways in which gendered attitudes and practices impact and influence leadership and governance. This module will expose students to multiple opportunities for active participation in leadership. Through readings, class presentations, experiential exercises, journal reflections, and small group discussion, students will be challenged to articulate their own leadership development.

HPS 107 Peace and Democracy
It has been realised that a society founded on democratic principles is most likely to be peaceful. Therefore the module examines the linkage between peace and democracy.  At the international level, democracies cooperate more and fight less to protect greater welfare levels arising from trade gains and foreign direct investment.At the community level, economic empowerment through micro-credit lending has increased incomes, stymied corruption, empowered women, increased child – education, and raised social consciousness about health and sanitation, the environment, and human rights.On the other hand, antidemocratic behavior including use of violence, rejection of elections, and transgression of authority (being ‘above the law’) negatively affects trade and investment, both locally and internationally. Through a series of case studies, students will analyze large and small-scale processes of economic and social development that support peace.

 

HPS 108 Principles of Non-violence
The module assesses themes and aspects of non-violence. Various approaches to non-violence will be surveyed. Of essence is also the need to understand how non-violence has shaped some societies. This module is designed to provide an in-depth and multi-disciplinary perspective on civilian-based movements and campaigns that defend and obtain basic rights and justice around the world, impacting the global security environment. Students will become familiar with the theory and practice of active nonviolence as a method of social change and a way of life. Students will learn how to apply the tactics and tools of nonviolence to promote peace and justice, safety and equality – personally, locally, in communities and globally. Since nonviolence is about organized activity, this module offers many exercises that require students to “embody” nonviolence. Thinking and talking about nonviolent protests is one thing, but engaging in the nonviolent action, especially when faced with highly emotional and tense situations, requires practice.

HPS 109 Peace and Reconciliation
The module examines the concepts and theoretical foundations of peace and reconciliation. It explores various methods that can be employed in the search for peace and reconciliation among societies.Cases will be drawn from societies that have gone through the processes of reconciliation, analysing the extent to which these processes have succeeded and challenges involved.
HPS 110 Conflicts and Human Displacement
Human displacement, dislocation and dispossession are some of the major consequences of violent conflict.This module considers the causes, dynamics and consequences of human displacement. It highlights the tensions that arise between host populations and immigrants. It also considers policies and strategies for rehabilitating both externally and internally displaced persons refugees and victims of forced migration.

HPS 201 Aspects in Peace and Conflict in Africa
Violent and costly conflict remains pervasive in parts of the African continent.This module investigates contemporary aspects in peace, conflict and economic conditions in Africa. Major focus specifically addresses the causes, dynamics and consequences of the degeneration of politics into warfare.Special emphasis revolves around how the economic, military, natural resources, environmental, religious situation are central to peace and conflict in Africa.

HPS 202 Peace Education
The module focuses on the role of education in enhancing peace in a society. It provides students with the theory and practice of peace education.Education can serve as an important form of peace building. The purpose of this class is to introduce students to the field of peace education and provide an overview of the history, central concepts, scholarship, and practices within the field.Peace education is an enterprise of positive peace, involving the promotion of human rights and social justice.Students will learn how peace education works both within the formal educational system and through non-formal channels such as community-based movements and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Peace education is not only about the content of education, but also the process. This module will aim to model peace pedagogy by promoting inquiry, collaboration, and dialogue and giving students the opportunity to practice these skills through student presentations on the course readings and topics. Group activities provide opportunities to learn about negotiation, cooperation and working together. Along with the freedom to challenge and contradict comes the responsibility of developing skills and attitudes necessary to be proactive and effective peacemakers, including critical thinking, active listening, reflection, self-discipline, respect and negotiation.

HPS 203 Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation
Conflicts change relationships, affecting communication, patterns of social organization, and altering images ourselves and of ‘the other’.However, the consequences of conflict can be transformed so that self-images, relationships, and social structures improve as a result of conflict instead of being harmed by it.These transformations, which include increasing understanding between people, and changing the way conflict is expressed (aggressively and competitively versus cooperatively), must take place at both the personal and the systemic level.  It focuses on the conflict transformation at the personal level, laying the conceptual groundwork for studyingsystemic (societal) conflict transformation in HPRS 408. Today the world faces a number of interrelated security challenges and threats, and there is no consensus on how best to deal with these. Conflict transformation has been developed as framework through which the conflict can be dealt with. This module examines the key theories, issues, debates and challenges in conflict transformation. The module also examines practical issues in conflict transformation.

HPS 204 Peace Economics 11
Creating sound economic policy and a stable macroeconomic framework is essential to societies recovering from violent conflict. This module extends beyond economic principles covered in Peace Economics I, into the wider realm of development policies that tackle inequalities of opportunity and build positive local social capital.This module explores the link between natural resources and conflicts, paying special attention to land productivity and the impact of resource inequalities in triggering conflicts.

HPS 206 Advanced Research Methods in Peace and Conflict Studies
The module introduces students to advanced qualitative and quantitative research methods.The major emphasis will be on the development of measures and peace indexes for use not only in Zimbabwe but also regionally, continentally and globally as well.

HPS 207 Religion, Peace and Conflict
Religion has a role to play in integrating and disintegrating societies.Therefore, religion is central in comprehending peace and conflict.Thus the module examines the impact of religion on peace and conflict across the World.

HPS 208 Civil Society and Peace Building
Civil society organizations are playing an increasingly important role in conflict resolution and peace-building worldwide.This module explores the role of civil society in peace building and post war reconstruction.

HPS 209 Economics of War and Peace
Complex relationships exist between economics, violent conflict and war, business, the environment, security and development.This course introduces students to political-economic linkages between conflict and peace at various levels of analysis. Students will explore the legal and illicit businesses associated with the conduct of war; scrutinize the role of business in conflict zones (including their human rights obligations) in terms of negative and positive impacts; and examine the economic aspects of moving from conflict to peace. Students will use economic analysis to assess peace and conflict drivers in particular cases.

HPS 210 Gender and Conflict
Conflicts tremendously affect gender relations, and this fact is often ignored in post war reconstruction and peace building.This module considers the gender dimensions of peace-building, and focuses specifically on strategies and policies for gender equity in postwar reconstruction.  It also highlights the role of women in peace building. Violent conflict impacts upon gender relations in many ways. This module examines the ways in which war engender changes, both positive and negative, in gender relations. It also considers the gendered nature of violent conflict.

HPS 211 Negotiations and Mediation
People in organizations operate in environments in which political and economic pressures are strong, and in which resources — natural and human resources as well as time and money – may be scarce.Moreover, various diverse and competing groups (both within and outside of the organization) often do all they can to influence the goals and direction of the organization.People want to participate in decisions that affect them, and will resist accepting decisions dictated by others.People differ, and they use negotiation to handle their differences.Whether the realm is business, government, or family and friends, people reach most decisions through negotiation.Students in this module will learn negotiation, the central skill in managing conflict, creating value, and distributing resources under these circumstances.

HPS 401 Peacekeeping in Africa
Attempts have been made to bring to an end conflicts that have embroiled the African continent.Peacekeeping has been one approach that has been used in Africa to try and address this menace. The modules therefore seek to examine the theory and practice of peacekeeping in Africa.Illuminating on the key challenges and successes and how best the challenges can be addressed.

HS 402 Law of Peace and Conflict
Ideally, wars should be waged according to specific rules and principles,which include among others, codes for the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians; in reality, few observe these principles. This module considers the laws of peace and war as contained in the Geneva Conventions, and highlights the challenging of enforcing these rules.

HPS 403 International Institutions and Conflict Resolution
Lasting peace requires strong and effective institutions for upholding the values and principles of peace building.This module identifies such institutions, evaluates their performance record and considers ways of strengthening and capacitating them.

HPS 404 Media and Conflict
The media plays an important role in a conflict situation, and it has the potential of either fuelling or contributing to ending violent conflict.This module considers the many, and often conflicting roles of the media in conflict. It raises questions of ‘who’ controls the media institutions and with ‘what’ effect when it comes to issues of peace and conflict.  Overally, the module focuses on the role of the media in the management and resolution of conflict as well as facilitating reconciliation.

HPS 405 Community Politics
Local communities are the prime consumers and perpetrators of conflict. Understanding how they relate to each other helps in illuminating on how conflict and peace ensue. Communities are made up of groups – neighborhoods, businesses, churches, special interest groups, and cultural groups (to name a few). Such groups come into conflict over different interests (i.e. housing development versus environmental preservation), roles and responsibilities (i.e. workers and supervisors, unions and management ), allocation of scarce resources (i.e. funding for certain programs/activities), and with cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity associated with changing populations. Changes -in people, in financial resources, in leadership, or in characteristics of the world in which organizations and communities exist – can heighten competitive responses to problems.How do groups in organizations and communities negotiate these tensions? And what ‘rules’ or ‘ processes’ facilitate constructive versus destructive conflict, within organizations and communities? This module is explores why conflict emerges in communities and community groups, how to minimize, deal with, “manage”, or resolve community and group conflict, and how conflict is used by groups as a strategy to bring about desired changes. In essence the module examines the theory and practice of politics in low level communities with aim of comprehending the basic level where issues of conflict emerge.

HPS 407 Comparative Peace Processes
Different societies have dealt with the problems of peace and war in culturally specific ways.This module offers a comparative analysis of different culturally specific approaches to peace building and conflict resolution.This module examines the ending of wars through peace process negotiations.Peace processes are negotiations that are far more complex than any other kind of international or intergroup negotiation.Peace processes involve bargaining between the principal conflict parties and among their own internal factions and constituencies, and sometimes involve outside interveners who want to mediate among the parties. Students will be able to understand the options for structuring such a negotiation, the issues that need to be resolved, the trade-offs and tensions that are involved and the dangers and challenges along the way.Cases from around the world will be analyzed in depth so that learners can identify the dynamics, patterns, factors involved.

HPS 408 Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation 2
Differing cases of conflict transformation provides different experiences.These cases can be used in ever emerging cases on conflict transformation. The module therefore examines the theory and practice of conflict transformation in selected cases.The cases examined provide students with practical examples on conflict transformation. This module builds on HPRS 203 by exploring how to change relationships between groups, within societies. At the heart of systemic conflict transformation lies the challenge of transforming relations after violent political conflict – in particular between people who have been directly involved in and/or affected by the violence, but also including members of wider society. Systemic transformation–the process of increasing justice and equality in the social system as a whole – involves transforming the way conflict is expressed, from organized violence to use of legal systems, advocacy campaigns, and legislation and policy that eliminates oppression, improves sharing of resources, and institutionalizes non-violent resolution of conflict between groups of people.

HPS 409 Diplomacy
Diplomacy is the major platform for facilitating, mitigating and dealing with complex, 21st century challenges including nuclear proliferation, climate change, economic disparities, and cooperation to combat transnational organized crime. The module therefore surveys in diplomatic skills to be employed in ending conflict and perpetuating peace.

HPS 410 Dissertation
Students will carry out research on a topic of their choice concerning pertinent issues in peace, conflict, reconciliation and related issues.