Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Economics and Development Honours Degree



These regulations should be read in conjunction with the Faculty Regulations and the

General Academic Regulations for Undergraduate Degree programmes herein referred to as General Regulations.


2.1 To develop an agricultural economics and development related degree programme relevant to Zimbabwe and the developing regions through contributing towards sustainable food production, natural resources management and overall economic growth.

 2.2 To respond to stakeholders’ needs for viability related to Agricultural and Natural Resources Management, through teaching research and extension.

2.3   Provision of a supportive environment for the theory and practice of Economics of Agriculture and Development in Natural Resources Management and Agriculture.

2.4  Production of competitive and innovative graduates for various career opportunities in private and public sectors as well as self-employment.

2.5       Creation of an understanding of a holistic or integrated systems approach to agricultural development and related Natural Resources Management.

Entry Requirements


3.1 Normal Entry

 Prospective students should have at least five ‘O’ Level passes including English Language, Science and at least a B in Mathematics and any two ‘A ‘Level passes in the following subjects Agriculture, Mathematics, Economics, Management of Business, Sociology, Accounts, Geography and Biology.

3.2 Special Entry

Refer to Section 3.2 of the Faculty Regulations.


3.3 Mature Entry

Refer to Section 3.3 of the General Regulations.

 3.4 Visiting School

 This is a 3 year degree program aimed at individuals already in employment. In addition to satisfying the general entry requirements, they should either have a Diploma in Agriculture or other relevant Tertiary qualification. Level 2 and 3 run concurrently.



Career Prospects


 On successful completion of the degree programme, graduates can be formally employed in the private or public sector. They may also be self – employed. The following career prospects are available to graduates:

 4.1 Private Sector – Bankers, commodity brokers, Agri – Business Finance Managers, Applied Economists, Consultants, Marketing Agents/Sales Representatives, Extensionists, Development and Communication Agents.

4.2 Public Sector – Researchers (Applied Economists, Marketing Agents,) Extensionists, Lecturers, NGOs and Development Agents, Development and Communication Agents.

4.3 Self-Employment – Farmers, Consultants.



 5.1 The Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Economics and Development is a four year full-time programme.

5.2 Students will be expected to go on a non-credit compulsory farm attachment during the rainy season vacation in level 1 to gain farm experience which they will not necessarily get during Work Related Learning in level 3. At the end of the attachment, students will submit an employer’s report and a student’s attachment report. Students with diplomas will be exempted from this attachment if they have acquired at least 1 year farm experience.

 5.3 In level 3, all students will be on Work Related Learning for a minimum period of ten months. During the same period, students will be expected to carry out a research project.

 5.4 A student shall be enrolled for at least six modules at any time during the semester, two of which should be core/compulsory.

5.5 Students can include in their programme of study, modules offered by other departments.

5.6 Students may be allowed to change registration for modules taken in any semester only during the first two weeks of registration.



 Refer to Section 6 of General Regulations and Section 5 of Faculty Regulations.


Programme Structure


The degree programme shall have at least 36 taught modules spread over the six teaching semesters.


Level 1 Semester 1
Code Module Description Prerequisite Credits
AWS101 Agricultural Biology 4
AGPR101 Agricultural Practice 1 4
LWR108 Agricultural Chemistry 4
CS101 Basic Communication Skills 1 4
HCS115 Introduction to Information Technology 4
AGED101 Introduction to Agricultural Economics 4
AGED103 Mathematics for Agricultural Economics 4
Level 1 Semester 2
AGED102 Micro Economics for Agriculture 1 (AGED101) 4
AGED104 Macro-Economics for Agricultural Economics (AGED101) 4
AGED105 Introduction to Rural Sociology 4
AGED106 Introduction to Agricultural Development 4
AGPR102 Agricultural Practice 2 (AGPR 101) 4
AGRO103 Crop Production 4
AWS116 Principles of Animal Production 4
Level 2 Semester 1
AGED201 Agri-Business Law 4
AGED202 Financial Management 4
AGED203 Macro Economics for Agriculture 2 (AGED 104) 4
AGED204 Micro Economics for Agriculture 2 (AGED102) 4
AGRO207 Biometry (AGED103) 4
GS201 Introduction to Gender Studies 4
AGED212 NGOs and Agricultural Development 4
ENT205 Entrepreneurship 4
Level 2 Semester 2
AGED205 Economics for Environmental Management 4
AGED206 Research Methods for Agricultural Economics 4
AGED207 Agribusiness Management 4
AGED208 Farm Business Management 4
AGED 209 Econometrics 1 (AGRO207) 4
AGED 210 Project Management 4
Level 3 Work Related Learning
AGPR 301 Work Related Learning Report (All level 1 modules) 15
AGPR 302 Academic Supervisor’s Assessment Report 15
AGPR 303 Employer’s Assessment Report 10


Level 4 Semester 1
AGED401 Agricultural and Food Marketing 4
AGED402 Agricultural Policy Analysis (AGED203) 4
AGED405 International Trade Theory & Policy (AGED204) 4
AGED408 Production Economics (AGED 203) 4
AGED407 Banking and Capital Markets (AGED202) 4
AGED410 Econometrics 2 (AGED209) 4
AWS402 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 4
Level 4 Semester 2
AGED404 Disaster and Relief Management 4
AGED406 Insurance and Risk Management in Agriculture 4
AGED409 Agricultural Extension 4
AGED414 Dissertation (AGED206) 8
AGED403 Entrepreneurship in Agriculture 4
AGED 411 Agricultural Tourism 4




AGPR 101 Agricultural Practice 1

Farm orientation, Poultry production/ Feed mixing (University farm), Soil sampling and crop fertilization, Plant population and yield estimation, Irrigation scheduling, Blood samples and smears, Administering veterinary drugs, Cattle identification and detention, Surveying in agriculture, Introduction to vegetable production, Farm week practicals (all semesters), Crops planting and fertilizing, Pig production(examined in semester 1.1), Dairying university farm (examined in semester 1.1).


AGPR 102 Agricultural Practice 2

Pig production at University farm, Dairying of University cattle, Control of internal parasites in livestock, Use and calibration of spraying equipment, Ox harness and use of ox-drawn ploughs, Tractor handling and ploughing/ contour construction, Soil coding for land classification, Vegetation coding in rangeland management, Farm budgets and Agric financing, Castration and dehorning (large and small stock), Game farming – visit to a commercial undertaking, Field visits: i) research station/ research trials ii) Large scale/ small scale farming.


AGED 101 Introduction to Agricultural Economics

Economic systems and organisation, theory of supply and demand, market equilibrium and nature of markets. Micro – economics. Macro – economics. The consumption, investment and savings functions. The international economy. Monetary and fiscal policies. Employment and growth policies. The role of the agricultural industry in the national economy.


AGED 102 Micro-Economics for Agriculture 1

Basic agricultural economics concepts. Economics of agricultural production- theoretical foundations; Physical and economic relations, the factor-product relationship, the factor-factor relationship, the product-product relationship. Market interaction; supply and demand theory. Production Economics; factors of production; production function; returns to scale; production costs; Long Run and Short run behaviours. Efficiency of resource use, Technical, Allocative and Economic efficiency, Risk and uncertainty. Consumer behaviour; Utility; indifference curves. Market structures, perfect and imperfect markets. Externalities.


AGED 103 Mathematics for Agricultural Economics

The module is designed to give students a basic understanding of mathematical tools and techniques required in economics, policy formulation and business decision making. The module seeks to shows the relevance of mathematical tools/ concept such as integration linear algebra, differentiation and optimization theory in the field of economics. Trigonometry, probability, functions, graphs, solving equations, matrix algebra, multivariate calculus, differentiation and integration.


AGED 104 Macro-Economics for Agriculture 1

This module is designed to introduce classic macro-economic issues such as definition macroeconomics, growth, inflation, unemployment, interest rates, exchange rates, technological progress, and budget deficits. The module will provide a unified framework to address these issues and to study the impact of different policies, such as monetary and fiscal policies, on the aggregate behaviour of individuals. These analytical tools will be used to understand the recent experience of the Zimbabwe and other countries and to address how current policy initiatives affect their macroeconomic performance.


AGED 105 Introduction to Rural Sociology

Examining rural social systems and structures and how they impact positively or negatively on development. Relate sociological theories to rural development activities. Examining social change theories and how they relate to the development discourse.


AGED 106 Introduction to Agricultural Development

This module is designed to impart a working knowledge of economic principles and practices on a range of topics pertaining to agricultural development policy and programs. The module will include agricultural development models, land tenure systems, the agricultural extension system and technology transfer, agricultural financial system, farmers’ organizations, agricultural price policies and marketing system, post-harvest technology of agricultural produce, development of the small farm economy, agricultural policy adjustments under trade liberalization, resource use efficiency and technical change in peasant agriculture, impact of HIV/AIDS and gender on agricultural development, rural-urban migration theory and institutional constraints on agricultural development and remedial policies.


AGED 201 Agri-Business Law

The module will cover the following aspects as a matter of principles of law but more so as they apply to the current challenges in the agricultural sector; Sources of law, basics of law of sale defining and applying the legal terms of thing, price, ownership and risk as well as sellers obligations and buyers remedies. Contract law, definition, essentials and application to agricultural funding, operations and marketing. Modes of access to land (land tenure). The law of agency, Employment contracts. Collective bargaining. National Social Security Authority (NSSA) Act.


AGED 202 Financial Management

Sources of Agricultural Finance in Zimbabwe. Banking instruments. Interest rates. Working capital management. Capital budgeting and appraisal techniques. Case studies of capitalization schemes. Cash flow budgeting. Basic interpretation of financial accounts; profitability and ratio analysis. Impact of national programmes in agricultural finance and development. Taxation.


AGED 203 M1cro – Economics for Agriculture 2

Basic demand relationships, Elasticity of demand, Homogeneity condition. Developments in demand theory; New theories of demand, Equilibrium and Exchange, Definition of equilibrium, Partial vs General equilibrium, Interference with equilibrium. Analysis of agricultural markets, Competitive markets and Pareto optimality, Policy intervention in markets. Welfare Economics and Economics of trade. Food and Agricultural policy.


AGED 204 Macro-Economics 2

Looks at economic behaviour and policies related to consumption, savings, investment, balance of trade, equilibrium in the goods and money market, domestic and international debt, their implication in a more rigorous manner.


AGED 205 Economics of Environmental Management

Environment and the micro-economy; Markets, Market failure and property rights, Government property rights, Economic instruments for environmental management, Attaching money values to environmental goods. Environment and the macro-economy; the green economy, Macroeconomic policy and the environment, Environment and the international economy, Environmental regulation, comparative advantage and international competitiveness, trans boundary externalities and environmental policy, trade liberalization and environmental impacts, Economics of pollution control, theory of pollution economics, the practical use of economic instruments in pollution control, Natural resource economics Management of renewal resources, market and institutional failure in the natural resource sector.


AGED 206 Research Methods for Agricultural Economics

This module introduces students to a number of research methods useful for academic and professional investigations of information practices, texts and technologies. The module is an obligatory part of preparation for the dissertation and has three principal aims: (i) to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to critically evaluate published research and to explore different ways of translating research questions in quantitative or qualitative studies (ii) to introduce the basic concepts, experimental designs and statistical procedures needed to execute research (iii) to provide hands-on experience in using the statistical package SPSS to carry out data analysis. The module offers an overview of the different approaches, considerations and challenges involved in social and economic research.


AGED 207 Agribusiness Management

The module seeks to appropriately recall all values from other modules and contextualize them to advantage Agricultural Business Management through: Forms of business and analysis of business environment. Value chain in agricultural operations. Management principles. Cooperate governance. Operations research. Agribusiness viability and analysis.


AGED 208 Farm Business Management

Background: Functions of management. Forms of business organisation in commercial agriculture. Farm records and Information Systems Management. Labour management farm planning and budgeting. Gross Margin Analysis. Whole farm budget and farm planning. Partial budget. Break-even budget. Cash flow budget. Sources of agricultural finance. Agricultural Support Schemes with special reference to Government support scheme. Contract Production schemes Management of working capital. Investment appraisal-Stock valuations and depreciation. Farm trading accounts – Profit and loss account. Farm balance sheet; its analysis and interpretation. Variances analysis. Audit of farm operation and budgetary control. Business ethics.


AGED 209 Econometrics

Module gives empirical content to economic theory. Uses mathematics and statistical tools to analyze economic behaviour i.e. estimate relationships, infer the implications of the estimates, test hypothesis about economic behaviour and predict economic behaviour. The tools include regression models, specification testing, general linear model, problems of single equation models and simultaneous equation models. The module content focuses on econometric techniques that provide students with the understanding need in modern economics.


AGED 210 Project Management

Introduction to project management; definition of terms, developmental projects and classification of projects. Project Cycle; monitoring and evaluation. Project planning; capital budgeting. Nine Areas of project management (Time, Cost, Quality, HR, Risk, Control) Team building for project leaders. Investment appraisal; discounting and compounding; undiscounted methods; discounted tools. BCA analysis, Risk analysis, sensitivity analysis. Logical framework analysis.


AGED 212 NGOs and Agricultural Development

Introduction to NGOs and their role in development; definitions, types and range of NGO activities. Capacity building and planning. Emerging issues in NGO sector; Government policy, NGO operations and agricultural development. NGOs and Civil society. Legal Framework for NGOs. Factors influencing NGO operations and viewpoints. Development of self-regulation in NGO community. Sustainability in NGOs and Human rights. Agricultural development and Sustainable agriculture. LOGFRAME Matrix Approach. Taxonomic approach to NGO management.


AGPR 301 Work Related Learning Report

This module assesses the reports submitted by the student during the time he is learning at the workplace in relation to the degree program.


AGPR 302 Academic Supervisors Report

This module is based on the academic’s field visits to the employers and assesses the effectiveness of the student in the work environment.


AGPR 303 Employer’s Assessment Report

This module assesses the role of the student in the work environment based on the employer’s assessment of the student.


AGED 401 Agriculture and Food Marketing

In addition to exploring marketing principles, this module also addresses unique marketing concepts related to Agricultural and Food Marketing. Definition of marketing, key roles of marketing in Agriculture; Price discovery; the food price dilemma, market structures; Structure, Conduct, Performance Model. Marketing principles, Consumer behaviour, Marketing Concept, Marketing Mix. Agricultural marketing management; Market margin analysis; Economic performance conceptual framework in agricultural marketing; Agricultural marketing information services; Agricultural marketing extension, A market oriented approach to Post harvest Management; Agricultural Market liberalization in Zimbabwe (Market Reforms) and Globalization. Strategic market planning and management; Marketing plans; Linking Production with Marketing (Contracting); Marketing research.


AGED 402 Agricultural Policy Analysis

This module offers a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding agricultural and food policy in Zimbabwe and the world. It examines the agricultural policy process in terms of rationale, content, and consequences. The module will build the analytical methods and results developed by economists to explain and predict household choices, market outcomes and government policies, starting with farm households’ decisions over production, consumption and trade. The module addresses how market prices are formed, how market outcomes respond to various kinds of changes, and what can inferred from those outcomes about changes in the well -being of market participants. We then examine the evidence on what governments actually do across countries and over time, and try to explain those interventions in economic terms. The focus of the module is on these modern “political economy” explanations of policy choices, in which government actions are explained as the result of equilibrium among optimizing people in both the public and private sectors.


AGED 403 Entrepreneurship in Agriculture

The module examines the factors that lead towards entrepreneurial success and the skills and behaviours necessary to be a successful entrepreneur in agricultural business. Students are introduced to fundamental economic, financial and organizational principles governing the setting-up and operation of business entities as well as demonstrate their specific application to business in the food and fibre system. Students will be assisted in developing a comprehensive business plan, which serve as a means of demonstrating the relevance of the concepts being discussed in class and as a template for a business enterprise that the student may wish to undertake in future. The module cultivate in the students an “entrepreneurship attitude” which will encourage innovation as they combine their knowledge, ideas and skills to develop solutions to economic issues in the food and fibre system. The module builds students’ problem solving and team-work abilities through group activities, oral and written presentation of ideas and concepts.


AGED 404 Disaster and Relief Management

All communities are vulnerable to disasters, both natural and man- made. Disaster or emergency management is about dealing with a disaster but also looking for and implementing strategies that could prevent or at least minimize the chance of them happening again or minimizing their impact. This module was designed to increase knowledge of disaster management, with the aim of reducing this vulnerability and improving disaster responsiveness. The module covers the following; Disaster Management Cycle (Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery); Education and Public Awareness. Community-based Initiatives; The Role of Technology in Disaster Management; Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Disaster Management; Media and Disaster Management; Physical and Socio-economic Impacts of Disasters; Emotional Impacts of Disasters; and Vulnerable Groups in Disasters.


AGED 405 International Trade Theory and Policy

This course discusses the basic theories of international trade and the consequences of trade in today’s global economy. Provides an opportunity to learn more about fundamental ideas such as comparative advantage, increasing returns to scale, factor endowments, and arbitrage across borders. It also discusses issues to do with trade policy such as tariffs, quotas and other non-tariff barriers. It also takes a look at issues to do with regional and international trade arrangements: their formation and effects on trade in the global economy.


AGED 406 Insurance and Risk Management in Agriculture

Concepts of risk management in agriculture. Theories and definitions of risk management. The measurement of risk. And the stochastic basis of risk. The Beta Risk adjustment methods and techniques used in dealing with risk, risk financing techniques. Hedging against risk, the futures options and contracts. Insurance in agriculture; crop, animal, farm vehicles. Policy wordings, underwriting and claims.


AGED 407 Banking and Capital Markets

This module enables the student to understand the key aspects of banking and capital markets. The material covered in the module will be theoretical, descriptive and applied in nature. The aim of the module is to make students understand the banking and financial systems, the operations and goals of participants in these systems, the role of interest rates and exchange rates in the economy, central bank, bank management and monetary theory. The student should also gain an understanding of the linkages of banking and capital markets as they relate to agriculture.


AGED 408 Production Economics

Introduction, Production with one variable input, Profit maximization with one input – one output, Costs, returns and profits on the output side, Production with two inputs, Maximization in two input case, Maximization subject to budget constraints, Further constrained maximization and minimization, Returns to scale, homogenous functions and Euler’s theorem, Cobb-Douglas function, Other agriculture production functions, Elasticity of substitution, Demand for input to the production process, Variable product and input prices, Production of more than one product, Maximization in two output setting, Two output and two input, General multiple -product and multiple-input conditions, Enterprise budget and marginal analysis, Decision making in an environment of risk and uncertainty, Time and agriculture production process, Linear programming and marginal analysis, Frontiers in agriculture production economics research, Contemporary production theory: the factor side, Contemporary production theory : the product side.


AGED 409 Agricultural Extension

The module seeks to help students in career planning, preparation, entry, adjustment and advancement in agriculture education and extension related careers. The areas covered include; the history of agricultural extension in Zimbabwe, definition of extension, extension ethics, communication skills, mass media, kinesics, art of listening and conducting successful meetings. Students are also taught extension methods and training programme planning, policy in Agricultural Extension, Farmer participation in extension programme planning, monitoring and evaluation, research extension linkages, agricultural extension change management and support, Donor Organisations in agricultural development and extension and Privatization of extension services.


AGED 410 Econometrics 2

This is a course in econometrics designed to provide students with the tools required to evaluate and to carry out empirical research. It focuses on issues that deals with the violation of the classical linear regression models assumption. Issues such as heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, model specification and multicollinearity are discussed. More so, the course deals with modeling dummy variables and simultaneous equation models. It provides an introductory discussion on time series and panel data econometrics.


AGED 411 Agricultural Tourism

Origins and means of food production and the importance of sustainable practices. Definitions, reasons for agricultural tourism, its importance at the local and national levels. Examples of agricultural tourism in Zimbabwe and worldwide; Agro – recreation and leisure business in farms, botanical gardens, city gardens, golf courses, ranches, safaris, agro and forest Estates, agro – processing plants, hunting clubs, boating, polo cross, horse racing. the viability and preservation of farms and ranches, natural resources conservation, economic and enterprise development, entrepreneurial education (including business planning, risk management, food safety, marketing, customer relations, product development, diversification and value added), policy analysis, regulatory policies and education of such to landowners, and public education.


AGED 414 Dissertation

This is a scientific report based on supervised research by the student. The dissertation should be presented to a panel of the Departmental Board.


CS 101 Basic Communication Skills 1

Refer to English and Communication Skills Department.


HCS 115 Introduction to Information Technology Refer to Computer Science Department.


AWS 101 Agricultural Biology

Refer to Animal and Wildlife Sciences Department.


LWR 108 Agricultural Chemistry

Refer to Land and Water Resources Management Department.


AWS 116 Principles of Animal Production

Refer to Animal and Wildlife Sciences Department.


AGRO 103 Crop Production

Refer to the Agronomy Department.


AGRO 207 Biometry

Refer to Agronomy Department.


ENT 205 Entrepreneurship

Refer to Entrepreneurship Department.


GS 201 Introduction to Gender Studies

Refer to the Gender Studies Department.